Glossary of used materials

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Name Description Physical and mechanical properties
Rollover the properties for more info.
Abachi Binomial name: Triplochiton scleroxylon

Abachi, Ayous and Samba are all the same species, but are from different parts of Africa.
Soft, tends to tear easily in thinner plys; mainly an outermost ply wood, pairs up well with many woods; it is a lightweight, flexible wood that is excellent for close-to-the-table counterdrive play.
 
Akossika Called Acosica by Joola.

Binomial names: Scottellia klaineana, Scottellia chevalieri, Scottellia coriacea, Scottellia kamerunensis, Scottellia minfiensis.

Common Names: Ngobisolo in Cameroon, Bilogh-Bi-Nkele in Gabon, Kruku or Koroko in Ghana, Odoko in Nigeria, in Germany, in UK and in Italy, Akossika in Ivory Coast, Korokon in Liberia, Kelembicho in Central African Republic.

African wood mainly from Nigeria and Ivory Coast.
- Density = 0.66 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 3.4
- Compressive strength = 56 MPa
- Bending strength = 94 MPa
- Stiffness = 12750 MPa
Anegre Binomial name: Pouteria spp. (formerly Aningeria genus)

Also known as Anigre, Aniegre, Kali, Osan, Landojan, Mukali, Muna, M'boul, N'Kali, Mukangu, Tutu, Kararo, Asanfena.
A light-tan hard wood native to Africa, yellow aningre is the ultimate control wood; providing a soft feel on contact, this wood is favored by many all-round styles of players; it is mid-hard, solid, and non-elastic; being waterproof, it is mostly used as surface veneer; Grubba Pro blades use yellow aningre wood for the outer and secondary plies.
- Density = 0.54 to 0.57 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 2.5
- Compressive strength = 48 MPa
- Bending strength = 84 MPa
- Stiffness = 13690 MPa
- Janka = 990 lbf (4450 N)
Aramid High strength, high stiffness fiber. Slightly softer than Arylate. Usually yellow.  
Aramid-Carbon A composite material comprised of a soft Aramid fiber and hard Carbon fiber; Aramid fiber makes the blade fast but not quite so hard as pure Carbon.  
Aratox Softer and more elastic (Donic & Andro) fibre than Aramid.  
Arylate Also known as Vectran™. A spun resin-based liquid crystal polymer used in high strength applications, such as body armour. Typically harder and stiffer than Aramid and Kevlar™. Fibres are usually blue or pale yellow. It is a reinforcing fiber used to expand the sweet spot of the blade and also to provide unsurpassed vibration control.  
Arylate-Carbon (ALC) A woven combination of Arylate and Carbon (ALC). Used in popular blades such as the Timo Boll Spirit. The speed and large sweet spot of Carbon combined with the great vibration control and soft feel of Arylate.  
Ash Binomial name: Fraxinus excelsior
European Ash, Common Ash.

Binomial name: Fraxinus latifolia
Oregon Ash.
Fraxinus excelsior
- Density = 0.6 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 51 MPa
- Bending strength = 103 MPa
- Stiffness = 12000 MPa
- Janka = 1480 lbf (6580 N)

Fraxinus latifolia
- Density = 0.61 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 42 MPa
- Bending strength = 88 MPa
- Stiffness = 9380 MPa
- Janka = 1160 lbf (5160 N)
Ayous Binomial name: Triplochiton scleroxylon

Abachi, Ayous and Samba are all the same species, but are from different parts of Africa. Also known as Obeche, Wawa, Arere, Ayus, M'bado, Bado, African Maple.
Soft, tends to tear easily in thinner plys; mainly an outermost ply wood, pairs up well with many woods; it is a lightweight, flexible wood that is excellent for close-to-the-table counterdrive play; Ayous is useful to both maintain some lightness in the core of the blade but not be as crazily light as balsa; it is not that great a top veneer wood.
- Density = 0.38 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 1.1
- Compressive strength = 30 MPa
- Bending strength = 52 MPa
- Stiffness = 7260 MPa
- Janka = 430 lbf (1915 N)
Balsa Binomial name: Ochroma pyramidale

Also known as Balso, Pau de Balsa, Lanu, Lanilla, Guano, Gatillo, Topa, Algodon, Bois Flot.
An extremely light, soft, porous, springy wood that has a non-linear effect at ball contact; hard, direct contact results in a big springing effect, while light or grazing contact results in a more controlled carom, and the difference is greater than what you'd expect; readily available but not usually in widths required for blades, so gluing will most likely be required; primarily useful as core and in rare cases second plys due to its fragility; deteriorates very quickly unless sealed; a thick balsa core tends to result in very springy, offensive blades; due to its softness, it can allow the ball to sink in, resulting in high dwell time, which is good for loopers and choppers who want to manufacture a lot of spin. Also, due to its softness and non-linear effect, it is useful for deception and spin variation.
- Density = 0.14 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 0.3
- Compressive strength = 11 MPa
- Bending strength = 20 MPa
- Stiffness = 3710 MPa
- Janka = 90 lbf (400 N)
Basalt Very hard volcanic rock.
 
Basswood Binomial name: Tilia americana
Common Names: Basswood, American Basswood, Lime, Linden.

Binomial name: Tilia europaea
Commonly called lime trees in the British Isles, they are not related to the lime fruit.

The genus is generally called lime or linden in Britain and basswood, linden, or lime in North America.

Also known as Bee-tree.

A harder wood, but still used in lower end all-round blades; bass wood has been a mainstay in racket making for over fifty years due to its high degree of control and economical price; it is favored by the close-to-the-table counterdriver as well as players looking to purchase their first professional racket.
Tilia americana
- Density = 0.42 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 33 MPa
- Bending strength = 60 MPa
- Stiffness = 10070 MPa
- Janka = 410 lbf (1824 N)
Beech Binomial name: Fagus grandifolia
American Beech.

Binomial name: Fagus sylvatica
Common Beech, European Beech.
Fagus grandifolia
- Density = 0.72 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 51 MPa
- Bending strength = 103 MPa
- Stiffness = 11860 MPa
- Janka = 1300 lbf (5780 N)

Fagus sylvatica
- Density = 0.71 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 57 MPa
- Bending strength = 110 MPa
- Stiffness = 14310 MPa
- Janka = 1450 lbf (6450 N)
Black Locust Binomial name: Robinia pseudoacacia
Common Names: Robinia, False Acacia.

Robinie in german.
- Density = 0.77 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 9.5
- Compressive strength = 70 MPa
- Bending strength = 134 MPa
- Stiffness = 14140 MPa
- Janka = 1700 lbf (7560 N)
Carbon A layer of Carbon is often used in blades in order to increase the speed and the 'sweet' spot, i.e., to make more of the blade surface ideal for ball contact; Carbon also tends to stiffen the blade. While fast, the bigger sweet spot provides for a shocking level of control.  
Carbon Glass fibre (G-Carbon) Glass fiber and Carbon combined into a resin base. Stiff and soft, lower speed than other Carbon composites. Shatters easily.  
Carbotox Softer and more elastic (Donic & Andro) fibre than Carbon.  
Cypress Binomial name: Taxodium distichum

Good, cheap and readily available. Tends to work best with woods similar to itself in playing quality such as Ayous, Ash and varieties of pine. Smells nice, though the mythical Kiso Hinoki variety is both rare and extremely valuable; the classic Asian attacking wood, it is favored by attackers for several decades because of its unique combination of speed and softness.
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
- Density = 0.47 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 42 MPa
- Bending strength = 85 MPa
- Stiffness = 11350 MPa
- Janka = 590 lbf (2625 N)
Ebony Ebony. - Density = 0.9 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 7.0
- Compressive strength = 58 MPa
- Bending strength = 130 MPa
- Stiffness = 15500 MPa
- Janka = 3080 lbf (13700 N)
Emien Binomial name: Alstonia congensis

Common names: Kaiwi (Sierra Leone); Awun (Nigeria); Ahun (Nigeria); Sindru (Ghana); Emien (Côte d`Ivoire); stoolwood (United Kingdom); Patternwood (United Kingdom); Akuka (Zaire); Ekuk (Gabon); Ekouk (Gabon); Ekuk (Equatorial Guinea); Ekouk (Equatorial Guinea); Tsongati (Congo); Ekuk (Cameroon); Ekouk (Cameroon); Mujwa (Uganda); Alstonia (Uganda); Wokuka; Vhu; Uguwa; Tsongutti; Tsongoti; Sundra; Stoolwood; Sindru; Senedur; Patternwood; Onguie; Omujwe; Nyemidua; Nyamelebaka; Nsiwa; N`songuti; Musoga; Mukoge; Mujwa; Mujua; Mogvga; Mogoliga; Lomba; Kuge; Kolowuli; Kigima; Kauwi; Kanja; Kaiwi; Emien; Emenle; Emee; Ekouk; Ebwu; Ebo; Duku; Dsen-nuru; Dnyame-dua; Cheese wood; Bokuka; Bokuk; Binu; Bantang foro; Bakunin; Awun; Alstonia; Ahun; Adawura; Adawra.

Alstonia congensis is reported to be abundant in the humid forests of Cameroon.
Widely distributed throughout West and Central Africa.
 
Fir Called Tanne in Germany.

Binomial name: Abies balsamea
Common Name: Balsam Fir

Binomial name: Abies magnifica
Common Name: California Red Fir

Binomial name: Pseudotsuga menziesii
Common Name: Douglas-Fir

Binomial name: Abies alba
Common Name: European Silver Fir

Binomial name: Abies grandis
Common Name: Grand Fir

Binomial name: Abies procera
Common Name: Noble Fir

Binomial name: Abies amabilis
Common Name: Pacific Silver Fir

Binomial name: Abies lasiocarpa
Common Name: Subalpine Fir
- Density = 0.49 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 2.5
- Compressive strength = 41 MPa
- Bending strength = 80 MPa
- Stiffness = 14300 MPa
- Janka = 650 lbf (2890 N)
Glass fibre Similar to Carbon in its purpose but resulting in less blade stiffness.  
Hinoki Binomial name: Chamaecyparis obtusa

Also known as Port Orford Cedar, Oregon, Oregon Cedar, Lawson Cypress.
A prized Japanese wood that is soft and bouncy; 'Kiso' denotes the top Hinoki woods, available only from a single location in Japan; considered the 'golden' wood of blades, Hinoki is a form of Cypress, and much of the Hinoki used just as outer plies is really Cypress; Hinoki has the property of being very soft with a nice soft touch in the short game, but very fast when hitting; the biggest drawbacks are probably weight and cost.
Kiso Hinoki is used for blade manufacturing only when having 300 years or more in age. It can be found in all types of veneers in table tennis blades.
- Density = 0.43 g/cm³
- Janka = 300 to 800 lbf (depending on the species of cypress)
Kevlar™ High stiffness, high strength fibre. Usually used in conjunction with Carbon. - Stiffness = between 70000 and 125000 MPa
Kiri Binomial name: Paulownia tomentosa

Also known as Paulownia, Royal Paulownia, Princess Tree, Empress Tree.
Kiri is the Japanese name for Paulownia.
A light weight, soft but torsionally stiff type of wood, mainly used as core veneer. (Almost every Butterfly table tennis blade that is made in Japan has a Kiri core.) More durable, heavier and harder than Balsa. (This is one of the main reasons why Butterfly blades are heavier than other manufacturer's blades.)
- Density = 0.26 to 0.35 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 21 MPa
- Bending strength = 38 MPa
- Stiffness = 4380 MPa
- Janka = 300 lbf (1335 N)
Koto Binomial name: Pterygota macrocarpa

Also known as Anatolia, Poroposo, Ofete, Kakende, Ikame, Ake, Awari, Kyere, Kefe.
Soft topspin wood, typically used in extremely thin outer plies to produce a faster and stiffer blade. Great wood for players who rely on both looping and countering techniques. Koto wood surface plies encourage crisp, fast blocks and hard hitting for sharper ball contact and faster rebound. Usually quartersawn for the pattern.
- Density = 0.59 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 2.5
- Compressive strength = 54 MPa
- Bending strength = 105 MPa
- Stiffness = 12080 MPa
- Janka = 940 lbf (4185 N)
Kukui Hawaiian wood.  
Limba Binomial name: Terminalia superba

Also known as Korina, Ofram, Frake, Afara, Akom.
A West African wood, Limba is the classic European topspin wood (as compared to Hinoki, which is the classic Asian topspin wood); heavy and fast, but not springy; Limba wood adds the soft feel and great control needed by today's modern topspin players; it is lighter and softer than Hinoki or Koto; Limba wood changes its color as the time passes so it is sometimes hard to spot a Limba wood by its color; although Limba wood is soft, it can’t give a soft feeling to the blade by itself, and when used with other veneers, a Limba blade can give a hard feeling; Limba has excellent acoustic properties and provides a good acoustic click sound when used with speed glue effect rubbers; its vibrations or flex is liked by topspin players; the higher the thickness of the Limba ply, the greater the blade's hitting ability.
- Density = 0.45 to 0.65 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 2.4
- Compressive strength = 47 MPa
- Bending strength = 86 MPa
- Stiffness = 10490 MPa
- Janka = 670 lbf (2980 N)
Mahogany Binomial name: Swietenia mahagoni

Mahogany.
- Density = 0.57 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 2.5
- Compressive strength = 46 MPa
- Bending strength = 77 MPa
- Stiffness = 11820 MPa
- Janka = 1070 lbf (4760 N)
Meranti Binomial name: Shorea spp.

The five main groupings for Meranti (Lauan) are:
- Dark Red Meranti
- Light Red Meranti (Shorea leprosula)
- White Meranti (Shorea bracteolata)
- Yellow Meranti (Shorea maxima)
- Balau.
Sometimes called Philippine Mahogany.
Dark Red Meranti
- Density = 0.68 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 49 MPa
- Bending strength = 88 MPa
- Stiffness = 12020 MPa
- Janka = 800 lbf (3560 N)

Light Red Meranti
- Density = 0.48 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 42 MPa
- Bending strength = 77 MPa
- Stiffness = 11390 MPa
- Janka = 550 lbf (2450 N)

White Meranti
- Density = 0.59 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 47 MPa
- Bending strength = 80 MPa
- Stiffness = 10240 MPa
- Janka = 1050 lbf (4675 N)

Yellow Meranti
- Density = 0.56 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 2.4
- Compressive strength = 44 MPa
- Bending strength = 81 MPa
- Stiffness = 10680 MPa
- Janka = 700 lbf (3118 N)

Balau
- Density = 0.85 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 71 MPa
- Bending strength = 122 MPa
- Stiffness = 16950 MPa
- Janka = 1600 lbf (7120 N)
Okoume Binomial name: Aucoumea klaineana

(Okoume - Angouma - Gabon).
- Density = 0.35 to 0.55 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 1.6
- Compressive strength = 36 MPa
- Bending strength = 75 MPa
- Stiffness = 9690 MPa
- Janka = 400 lbf (1780 N)
Oregon Maybe Port Orford cypress. See Cypress.

But there is other woods called Oregon :
- Oregon Ash (Fraxinus latifolia). See Ash.
- Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana).
- Oregon Pine or Douglas-Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). See Fir.
Quercus garryana
- Density = 0.81 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 51 MPa
- Bending strength = 70 MPa
- Stiffness = 7510 MPa
- Janka = 1640 lbf (7295 N)
Padauk Binomial name: Pterocarpus soyauxii
Common Names: African Padauk, Vermillion.

The wood is hard and elastic, partly used as surface veneer (dark red colour).
- Density = 0.75 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 8.3
- Compressive strength = 56 MPa
- Bending strength = 116 MPa
- Stiffness = 11720 MPa
- Janka = 1970 lbf (8760 N)
Pine Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra)
Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea)
Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)
Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana)
Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi)
Khasi Pine (Pinus kesiya)
Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis)
Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda)
Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta)
Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)
Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster)
Ocote Pine (Pinus oocarpa)
Patula Pine (Pinus patula)
Pinyon Pine (Pinus edulis)
Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida)
Pond Pine (Pinus serotina)
Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa)
Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata)
Red Pine (Pinus resinosa)
Sand Pine (Pinus clausa)
Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)
Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata)
Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii)
Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana)
Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii)
Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens)
Western White Pine (Pinus monticola)
Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana)
Pinus clausa
- Density = 0.55 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 48 MPa
- Bending strength = 80 MPa
- Stiffness = 9720 MPa
- Janka = 730 lbf (3250 N)

Pinus radiata
- Density = 0.51 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 42 MPa
- Bending strength = 79 MPa
- Stiffness = 10060 MPa
- Janka = 710 lbf (3160 N)
Planchonello Planchonello outer layers produce great speed; this wood is most often found in blades designed for the power attacker.  
Poplar Binomial name: Populus
Not to be confused with Liriodendron tulipifera (Tulip Poplar, Tulip tree).

Readily available, capable of being used as a core wood and as an outer ply, providing skill in matching thicknesses up.
- Density = 0.46 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 1.3
- Compressive strength = 38 MPa
- Bending strength = 70 MPa
- Stiffness = 10900 MPa
- Janka = 540 lbf (2400 N)
Red Cedar Binomial name: Thuya Plicata

The Red Cedar is a native of Canada.
- Density = 0.38 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 1.1
Rosewood Binomial names: Dalbergia maritima, Dalbergia louvelii.

Common Name: Bois de Rose.
- Density = 0.93 g/cm³
- Janka = 2600 lbf (11570 N)
RX-Carbon RX-Carbon consists of hard black and soft red fibers.
This mix speeds your game up, increases the energy efficiency and provides a natural touch.
 
Samba See Abachi and Ayous.  
Santos Mahogany Binomial name: Myroxylon balsamum

Despite its name, Santos Mahogany is not really related to true Mahogany (Swietenia genus), nor is it even in the Meliaceae family, as is the case with African Mahogany (Khaya genus) and Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata). Santos Mahogany can have a Mahogany-like appearance, though it is typically much denser, harder, and stronger than true Mahogany—and also much more difficult to work.
- Density = 0.91 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 81 MPa
- Bending strength = 149 MPa
- Stiffness = 16410 MPa
- Janka = 2400 lbf (10680 N)
Sapele Binomial name: Entandrophragma cylindricum

Common Names: Sapelli, Sapali.
- Density = 0.67 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 4.2
- Compressive strength = 60 MPa
- Bending strength = 110 MPa
- Stiffness = 13960 MPa
- Janka = 1410 lbf (6280 N)
Spruce Binomial name: Picea sitchensis (Sitka Spruce)

Called Fichte in Germany.
Used to create better speed, Spruce plies result in big sound and good feeling when you hit the ball, but when this ply comes too much close to the rubber, the sound and feeling are too powerful, and the ball will not be very spinny, so it is better used beneath a surface ply.
- Density = 0.45 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 2.2
- Compressive strength = 46 MPa
- Bending strength = 78 MPa
- Stiffness = 11900 MPa
- Janka = 510 lbf (2270 N)
Tamca® 5000 A style of Carbon which is woven into a fabric or mesh. Typically stiff and fast, but not as hard as laminate type Carbon layers.
TAMCA 5000 (Carbon Fiber) is strong and light; six times stronger and one fifth in weight compared with iron and steel. Blades using TAMCA 5000 are light and strong with high elasticity and enable high performance.
 
Texalium™ An aluminium impregnated resin cloth layer that is formed into a solid ply. Hard, fast and quite stiff, but not as heavy as Carbon weaves.  
Tung Binomial name: Vernicia fordii
Common name: Tung Tree

Used as inner plies.
The wood of the tree is lightweight and strong, and is sometimes used as a substitute for balsa, kiri or basswood.
 
Uniaxial Light Carbon (ULC) Uniaxial Light Carbon.
Carbon laid out with fibres aligned in a singular direction; typically north-south. Not as stiff, fast or hard as weave type Carbon layers. Considerably lighter (75-85%).
TAMCA ULC employs many carbon fibers but only lengthwise. Usually for carbon sheets, fibers are woven evenly in every direction. Therefore, TAMCA ULC is light but does not sacrifice speed.
 
Walnut Binomial name: Juglans regia
Common Names: English Walnut, Circassian Walnut, European Walnut, French Walnut, Common Walnut.

Binomial name: Lovoa trichilioides
Common Name: African Walnut.

Binomial name: Juglans spp. (Juglans australis, J. neotropica, J. olanchana, etc.)
Common Names: Peruvian Walnut, Tropical Walnut, Nogal.

Binomial name: Juglans nigra
Common Name: Black Walnut.

Dark coloured wood that is fast, hard and expensive; outer ply material; pairs up well with a soft core.
Juglans regia
- Density = 0.64 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 3.2
- Compressive strength = 50 MPa
- Bending strength = 111 MPa
- Stiffness = 10810 MPa
- Janka = 1220 lbf (5430 N)

Lovoa trichilioides
- Density = 0.54 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 46 MPa
- Bending strength = 84 MPa
- Stiffness = 9240 MPa
- Janka = 940 lbf (4180 N)

Juglans spp.
- Density = 0.6 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 45 MPa
- Bending strength = 77 MPa
- Stiffness = 7810 MPa
- Janka = 960 lbf (4270 N)

Juglans nigra
- Density = 0.61 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 52 MPa
- Bending strength = 101 MPa
- Stiffness = 11590 MPa
- Janka = 1010 lbf (4490 N)
Wenge Binomial name: Millettia laurentii - Density = 0.87 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 9.1
- Compressive strength = 85 MPa
- Bending strength = 144 MPa
- Stiffness = 21050 MPa
- Janka = 1630
White Ash Binomial name: Fraxinus americana

White Ash, American White Ash.
- Density = 0.87 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 9.1
- Compressive strength = 81 MPa
- Bending strength = 152 MPa
- Stiffness = 17590 MPa
- Janka = 1930 lbf (8590 N)
Willow Binomial name: Salix nigra
Common Name: Black Willow.

Binomial name: Salix fragilis
Common Names: Crack Willow, Brittle Willow.

Binomial name: Salix alba
Common Name: White Willow.

Also known as Yanagi.
A heavy wood used most often in choppers' blades, as an outer layer, due to its deadening effect, making hard, fast loops easier to control.
Salix nigra
- Density = 0.42 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 28 MPa
- Bending strength = 54 MPa
- Stiffness = 6970 MPa
- Janka = 430 lbf (1920 N)

Salix fragilis
- Density = 0.43 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 24 MPa
- Bending strength = 65 MPa
- Stiffness = 7950 MPa
- Janka = 640 lbf (2850 N)

Salix alba
- Density = 0.4 g/cm³
- Compressive strength = 27 MPa
- Bending strength = 56 MPa
- Stiffness = 7760 MPa
- Janka = 570 lbf (2540 N)
Yellow Aningre Yellow Aningre is the ultimate control wood; providing a soft feel on contact, this wood is favored by many all-round styles of players; it is mid-hard, solid, and non-elastic; being waterproof, it is mostly used as surface veneer; Grubba Pro blades use Yellow Aningre wood for the outer and secondary plies. - Density = 0.54 to 0.57 g/cm³
- Monnin Hardness = 2.5
Zylon Also known as PB0 fibre. Used in high strength applications. Known issue where the fibres slowly degrade after contact with any form of water, but is not an issue in tabletennis applications. Slightly lighter than other similar polymer fibres (Arylate, Aramid, Kevlar™) but slightly faster and stiffer. Typically gold coloured fibres.  
Zylon-Carbon (ZLC) Zylon fibres woven into a Carbon weave. Generally around 50% Zylon 50% Carbon. Lightens the blade by 10% or 15% and retains the original speed. Stiffness is slightly lower and the feel is now soft.